Addictive personality disorder

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Addictive personality disorder

An “addictive personality” is a colloquial or informal term based on the belief that certain people have a particular set of personality traits that predisposes them to addiction and other problematic behaviors, such as drug abuse or gambling. Although it is a fairly common concept, there is no medical or scientific definition of an “addictive personality” or “addictive personality disorder.”

Genetics, for example, play a role in the development of an addiction. Heritability, or the extent to which genes impact behavior, is estimated to be between 40% and 70% for addiction, depending on the type of substance. There are both drug-specific genes and genes related to the development of mental health and substance abuse disorders.

Personality Traits That Can Lead to Addiction

Research suggests that certain personality or behavioral traits can make someone more likely to develop an addiction. Traits can vary between substance and addiction type, or even by age of the individual. Certain traits have been associated with drug abuse and/or addiction in general, including:

  • Impulsivity: Impulsivity is commonly associated with a wide range of psychological problems, including addiction. Sometimes described as spontaneous or erratic behavior with little thought of the outcomes or consequences, impulsivity can lead to risky behaviors.
  • Sensation-seeking behavior: This trait is similar to impulsivity in the sense that sensation-seeking individuals might be more spontaneous or also seek out risky situations to fulfill the need for new or varied experiences.
  • Negative affect: Negative affect refers to a set of unpleasant emotions, such as anger and sadness that can lead to maladaptive behaviors, including substance abuse. Those with negative affect are more likely to abuse substances to cope with stress.
  • Negative urgency: Negative urgency is how rashly a person responds to distress. Those with negative urgency who have difficulty managing stress in a healthy way are more likely to turn to substance abuse to cope.
  • Neuroticism: People with high neuroticism often respond to challenges or threats with negative emotions, such as anger, sadness, anxiety, and irritability. Research has revealed that people with high neuroticism are more likely to suffer from a substance use disorder.
  • Disagreeableness: People who are disagreeable are more likely to be selfish, unfriendly, and uncooperative. Studies have shown that a low level of agreeableness is correlated with alcohol or drug addiction.
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Will I Become Addicted?

Not everyone who has the traits will develop a substance abuse problem.

Many worry that having these traits will lead to addiction. However, as mentioned above, many other factors influence the development of an addiction. Not everyone who has a set of traits or genes that predisposes them to addiction develops problems with substance abuse. Protective factors, such as a strong support network, an ability to handle life stressors, and resilience can prevent addiction.

For example, someone who is sensation-seeking and impulsive may be more likely to engage in risk-taking activities, but may pick up sky-diving or mountain climbing instead of drugs. Conversely, someone who does not display any of these traits can develop an addiction.

If you are worried you may develop an addiction, or if you know that addiction runs in your family, educate yourself on substance abuse and the risks of using. Learn to use coping skills when experiencing negative life events or emotions, and surround yourself with positive and sober people.

Predictors of Adolescent Substance Abuse and Behavioral Addictions

Common traits found in adolescents who abuse drugs and alcohol and exhibit problematic gambling include:

  • High impulsivity.
  • Depression
  • Extraversion
  • Sensation-seeking
  • Anxiety
  • Neuroticism

Some of these traits show up in early childhood, while others may develop later in adolescence. Although not every adolescent who exhibits these traits will develop an addiction, it’s important to know the predictors so that drug abuse education and early intervention can be provided.

Additional adolescent traits that are associated with computer gaming addiction include: 7

  • Low self-esteem.
  • Irritability/aggression.
  • Social anxiety.

Risk and Protective Factors in Children and Adolescents

According to the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA), risk factors increase the likelihood of negative consequences later in life, while protective factors decrease the likelihood. Some risk and protective factors remain the same throughout a person’s life, and some are variable, depending on life circumstances.

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Those who have more risk factors, such as neglect or abuse, are more likely to have adverse outcomes. On the other hand, those with more protective factors, such as a stable home, family, and school, are likely to have better outcomes.

Risk Factors

  • Prenatal exposure to substance use
  • Parents who abuse drugs or alcohol
  • Child abuse
  • Child neglect
  • Violence against mother
  • Mental illness in the household
  • Parental divorce or separation
Incarcerated family member

Protective Factors

  • Positive self-image
  • Self-control
  • Social competence
  • Parental involvement and monitoring
  • Availability of after-school activities
  • Academic competence
Anti-drug policies in school

Treatment Options

Many different types of services are available to help people who have developed an addiction. Treatment programs can help people manage certain traits, such as impulsivity or neuroticism that may be contributing to an addiction.

  • Inpatient: Inpatient treatment options for addiction offer 24/7 support and are provided in a medical or residential setting. The length of time will vary depending on the person’s needs and his or her addiction, but typical stays can range from 30 days to 90 days.
  • Outpatient: Outpatient programs are less intensive and allow the person to live at home while receiving recovery services.
  • 12-step programs: Support groups, such as Alcoholics Anonymous (AA) and Narcotics Anonymous (NA), provide a safe and supportive environment consisting of others in recovery.
  • Teen programs: Specialized programs for teens are based on the unique needs of the individual. According to the National Institute on Drug Abuse, most adolescent addiction treatment takes place in an outpatient setting in order to keep them in the community. However, in more severe cases, teen inpatient treatment may be preferable. According to the American Society of Addiction Medicine, providers should assess certain aspects of the adolescent’s life when determining a course of treatment, including:
    • Level of intoxication and risk of withdrawal.
    • Any other medical conditions.
    • Other behavioral, cognitive, or emotional conditions.
    • Readiness to change.
    • Risk of relapse.
    • Environmental factors such as family, peers and school.

5 Ways to Overcome an Addictive Personality

While we might think of people with addictions as those who are hooked on a particular drug, many more people relate to the idea of having an addictive personality, even if they have never used what are commonly thought of as drugs, such as marijuana and heroin.

  1. Comfort Eating: Comfort eating is a common way that we make ourselves feel better when we are disappointed, stressed or overwhelmed. While comfort eating is not harmful in moderation, if it becomes a habit, it can lead to obesity, food addiction, and binge eating. Instead of overeating, learn to nurture yourself through restorative activities, such as meditation, taking a relaxing bath or getting a good night’s sleep.
  2. Using Alcohol to Socialize: Socializing is one of the top reasons heavy drinkers give to explain their overindulgence in alcohol. A beer or a glass of wine can seem like a quick and easy way to lower inhibitions and have a laugh with friends. But all too easily, alcohol can become the only way to get along with people, leaving you feeling bored or anxious in situations where everyone is sober.
  3. Staying Hyper connected: Checking your email or Facebook account every hour or more, never letting your cell phone out of reach, surfing the Internet every time you have a spare moment? While these activities might seem normal these days, they can lead to problems with Internet addiction. Using the Internet for sex, gamblingor shopping can lead to more complex addictions. So, take a break from the information superhighway.
  4. Using Sex to Replace Intimacy: It might seem contradictory to suggest that sex could replace intimacy. After all, isn’t sex the most intimate act between two people? But people who are addicted to sex tell a different story: Constantly seeking sexual arousal and gratification can actually distance you from your partner, as you lose yourself in the sensations of the sexual experience, rather than being aware of the feelings of the other person. Tips to restore intimacy after sex addiction may be helpful.
  5. Shopping for Self Esteem: Over shoppingcan be caused by a lot of things. But one of the main reasons shopaholics give for running up debts is the boost they get when they think the new clothes, the new shoes, and the new gadgets will change who they are and make them a better person. But as soon as it is yours, the object feels worthless and may even be stashed in the back of the cupboard, rather than used and enjoyed. So, instead of bolstering your ego with possessions, try my tips to building self-esteem.

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